Business Technology Consulting

Successful Business with RFID, RTLS and Beyond


U-S Motion

U-S Position

U-S Velocity

U-S Flow Speed

The Fundamental Physical Principles of sensing include Electric Charges, Electrical, Gravitation Fields, Potentials, Resistance, Capacitance, Induction, Magnetism, Piezoelectric or Thermoelectric Effects and Light and so on. Often sensors based on different physical principles perform the same function. Utilization of a few of them considerably reduces incorrect detections and increases sensors redundancy and detectability. Controllable wireless sensors can form a network thus enabling automation of business and industrial processes in military, industrial and commercial applications. Wireless sensor network is a group of devices performing sensing, data processing and wireless ad-hoc data communications. This powerful synergy enables innovative applications. A networked sensor can be a radar station, pollution monitor, video camera, mobile phone, heart rate monitor, or just a simple ID tag. The most popular communications standards in Wireless network include Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n/as and ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4.


Occupancy and Motion Detectors

·         Ultrasonic (Reflections and Doppler effects)

·         Capacitive

·         Optoelectronic

·         IR: sensitive to heat waves


Position, Displacement, and Level Sensors

·         Capacitive & Inductive

·         Eddy Current

·         Polarized Light

·         Ultrasonic


Velocity and Acceleration Sensors

·         Video CCTV

·         Radars

·         Capacitive, Piezoelectric

·         Gravitational


Flow Sensors

·         Pressure Gradient Technique

·         Thermal Transport

·         Drag Force


Light Detectors

·         Photodiodes

·         Phototransistor

·         Image - Face Recognition System

·         Gas Flame



·         Accuracy

·         Drift

·         Hysteresis

·         Linearity

·         Measurement Range

·         Minimum Detectable Signal

·         Precision

·         Repeatability

·         Selectivity

·         Sensitivity 


·         Problems in Powering Wireless Sensor Nodes

·         Sensors are sources of RFI/EMI

·         Incorrect: rejection of a true existing objects; and acceptance of non-existing objects

·         Sensor cross-sensitivities associated with environmental effects

·         Ultrasonic sensors have low spatial selectivity

·         Infrared motion detectors are susceptible to heat waves

·         Fading effect of electromagnetic waves reflected from objects

·         Ultrasonic signals corruption by waves reflected from objects

·         Sensors failure because of insufficient reliability, selectivity, or noise immunity